Submit your manuscript
Preparing your manuscript
The information below details the section headings that you should include in your manuscript and what information should be within each section. Original article and review article should not exceed more than 4000 words, short communication, invited article, complimentary article and special article -3000 words. Supplementary material will be published as received from the author without any conversion, editing, or reformatting.
Please note that your manuscript must include a ‘Declarations’ section including all of the subheadings (please see below for more information).
The title page should:
Present a title that includes, if appropriate, the study design e.g.:
“A versus B in the treatment of C: a randomized controlled trial”, “X is a risk factor for Y: a case control study”, “What is the impact of factor X on subject Y: A systematic review”
Or for non-clinical or non-research studies a description of what the article reports
List the full names, institutional addresses and email addresses for all authors
If a collaboration group should be listed as an author, please list the Group name as an author. If you would like the names of the individual members of the Group to be searchable through their individual PubMed records, please include this information in the “Acknowledgements” section in accordance with the instructions below indicate the corresponding author
The Abstract should not exceed 350 words. Please minimize the use of abbreviations and do not cite references in the abstract. The abstract must include the following separate sections:
Background: the context and purpose of the study
Methods: how the study was performed and statistical tests used
Results: the main findings
Conclusions: brief summary and potential implications
Trial registration: If your article reports the results of a health care intervention on human participants.
Three to ten keywords representing the main content of the article.
The Background section should explain the background to the study, its aims, a summary of the existing literature and why this study was necessary or its contribution to the field.
The methods section should include: the aim, design and setting of the study, the characteristics of participants or description of materials.A clear description of all processes, interventions and comparisons. Generic drug names should generally be used. When proprietary brands are used in research, include the brand names in parentheses
The type of statistical analysis used, including a power calculation if appropriate
This should include the findings of the study including, if appropriate, results of statistical analysis which must be included either in the text or as tables and figures.
This section should discuss the implications of the findings in context of existing research and highlight limitations of the study.
This should state clearly the main conclusions and provide an explanation of the importance and relevance of the study reported.
List of abbreviations
If abbreviations are used in the text they should be defined in the text at first use, and a list of abbreviations should be provided.
All manuscripts must contain the following sections under the heading ‘Declarations’:
Ethics approval and consent to participate
Consent for publication
Availability of data and material
Authors’ information (optional)
Please see below for details on the information to be included in these sections.
Bibliographic references should be based upon Vancouver reference style.
Language editing services
For editors and reviewers to accurately assess the work presented in your manuscript you need to ensure the English language is of sufficient quality to be understood. If you need help with writing in English you should consider visiting the English language tutorial which covers the common mistakes when writing in English. Asking a colleague who is a native English speaker to review your manuscript for clarity. Using a professional language editing service where editors will improve the English to ensure that your meaning is clear and identify problems that require your review. Please note that the use of a language editing service is not a requirement for publication in the journal and does not imply or guarantee that the article will be selected for peer review or accepted.
Copyright on any open access article in a journal published by us is retained by the author(s).
Prepare supporting information
Please make sure you have the following information available before you submit your manuscript:
Full names and email addresses of all co-authors on your manuscript.
An explanation of any issues relating to journal policies
An explanation of why your manuscript should be published
A declaration of any potential competing interests
Confirmation that all authors have approved the manuscript for submission
Confirmation that the content of the manuscript has not been published, or submitted for publication elsewhere